Tag Archives: pep

We really can beat HIV!

In October 2017, Public Health England reported an 18% drop in the numbers of people diagnosed with HIV in 2016 – this includes 18% fewer diagnoses among people of black African ethnicity compared to 2015.

This was the first time that we’ve had such a significant drop and it is was all down to a combination of things we can all do to make a difference.

New ways to stop the spread of HIV

The HIV epidemic started more than 30 years ago but recently there have been some big changes which we want to share with you and make sure everyone knows about. The number of HIV infections is starting to come down in some areas and this is down to a combined approach to stopping HIV. It’s no longer JUST about condoms, HIV treatment is now a part of our armoury against HIV – and part of protected sex.

Here’s how:

1) Treatment as Prevention (TasP)

If someone is on effective HIV treatment and has an ‘undetectable viral load’ they cannot pass on HIV. (The viral load is the amount of HIV measured in a blood test – most clinics in the UK classify undetectable as being below 20 copies/ml.)

We are saying this based on findings from the PARTNER study which looked at 888 gay and straight couples (and 58,000 sex acts) where one partner was HIV positive and on effective treatment and one was HIV negative. Results found that where the HIV positive partner had an undetectable viral load, there were no cases of HIV transmission whether they had anal or vaginal sex without a condom. It can take up to six months from starting treatment to become undetectable.

What this means: This is exciting news as it means treatment is a new way to stop the spread of HIV. Don’t forget though that sex without a condom still means you can get or pass on another sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can result in a pregnancy.

2) Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

PrEP is a course of HIV drugs taken by an HIV negative person who is at risk of getting HIV to lower their chance of becoming infected. When taken correctly, PrEP significantly reduces the chances of becoming HIV positive.

In England PrEP is not currently available on the NHS routinely, although 10,000 people will be taking it as part of the IMPACT trial, which started this autumn. In Scotland and Wales PrEP is available on the NHS.

What this means: If you are likely to be exposed to HIV, PrEP is another way to protect yourself.

3) Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

PEP is a month-long course of HIV medication taken by an HIV negative person after possible exposure to reduce the chance of getting HIV. When started in time (within 72 hours, but within 24 hours is best) PEP can stop HIV infection after sex without a condom (or other exposure) with someone who is infectious – but it does not work every time.

What this means: PEP is the third way HIV treatment can be used to protect yourself, a doctor will assess whether you will be eligible or not depending on the risk taken.

Testing and treatment saves lives

In terms of stopping HIV this new information is monumental and the facts show that people power can dramatically reduce HIV transmissions. Regular testing means more people with HIV will be diagnosed and taking treatment – so they will be less likely to become ill and less likely to pass on HIV.

Despite the good news of a drop in HIV rates, 54% of newly diagnosed black African people were diagnosed late in 2016, which means they will have an increased risk of developing an AIDS-defining illness. The British HIV Association (BHIVA) recommends everyone with HIV starts treatment when they are diagnosed. This is because a study called START found that starting straight away significantly reduced people’s chances of developing AIDS-related illnesses.

So the problem we have is that although lots of us are being diagnosed and getting onto treatment in time, an even bigger proportion are finding out they have HIV at a point where their immune systems have been damaged. Regular testing is the linchpin of reducing late diagnoses and keeping people well.

Additionally, people are extremely infectious when they are first infected with HIV which is why early diagnosis is so important – if you are on effective treatment and have an undetectable viral load you cannot pass on HIV.

The Simple Science

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It was identified in the early 1980s and belongs to a group of viruses called retroviruses.

HIV uses your CD4 cells to reproduce, destroying them in the process. These are important cells which co-ordinate your immune system to fight off illnesses and infections. As the number declines, you may not have enough to keep your immune system working properly. At the same time the amount of HIV in your body (the ‘viral load’) will usually increase.

Without treatment your immune system will not be able to work properly and protect you from ‘opportunistic infections’.

Effective treatment will mean your CD4 count increases and your viral load decreases – hopefully to ‘undetectable’ levels.

The viral load test shows how much HIV is in your body by measuring how many particles of HIV are in a blood sample. The results are given as the number of ‘copies’ of HIV per millilitre of blood – for example 200 copies/ml.

An ‘undetectable’ viral load does not mean there is no HIV present – HIV is still there but in levels too low for the laboratory test to pick up. Different laboratories may have different cut off points when classifying an undetectable viral load, however most clinics in the UK classify undetectable as being below 20 copies/ml.

Modern HIV treatment means that many people with HIV are living long, healthy lives and if you’re taking HIV medication and have an undetectable viral load you cannot pass on HIV.

Getting tested

Our Rapid HIV testing service is available Monday-Friday between 9am – 4pm.  You do not need an appointment.

The test is performed at our office on Regent Road, Leicester by qualified and experienced HIV testers.  The process usually takes around 20 minutes.

The test is free to ‘at risk groups’ and always confidential.  If you’re not at risk, we can refer you to an alternative service who will be able to provide you with a free HIV test.  You can still test with us for £20 or you may prefer a free Home Sampling kit or buy a Home Testing kit from BioSure for £29.95.  You can also find details of other testing services by clicking here.

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A gay man’s experience of using PEP (Emergency HIV medication)

In recent months I experienced something I never thought I’d have to deal with when I faced the possibility that I might have contracted HIV.

I have been sexually responsible for my entire adult life and have always been heavily influenced by warnings of the past regarding HIV and AIDS, however all it takes is one moment of passion to let your guard down and you can find yourself in a situation similar to mine which resulted in me taking the HIV emergency medication known as PEP. The days leading up to my 28-day treatment were possibly some of the scariest of my life. Experiencing this drug first hand and the people I encountered along the way brought on a variety of conflicting emotions and an understanding of sexual health I never thought I’d have to comprehend.

Story via Metro

What is PEP?

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is a month-long course of medication which aims to prevent HIV infection after the virus has potentially entered a person’s body. The drug is used as an emergency measure on a person who may have been exposed to the virus, either through infection or sexual transmission. Although PEP is not 100% guaranteed to always work, the success rate is very high. It’s very important to make clear that PEP should not be considered an alternative to using condoms as prevention for contracting HIV. Using condoms is the most effective method of preventing HIV transmission as well as other sexually transmitted diseases.

The drug should also not be viewed as some form of a morning after pill either – PEP is a powerful drug and users like me risk side effects, not to mention the fact PEP isn’t taken on just one occasion like with morning after pills. I myself am lucky enough to have not experienced any side-effects of PEP, but the potential side-effects include prolonged headaches, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. If you experience any of these side effects you should not stop taking the medication as once stopped, PEP will not be effective. Contact your doctor to discuss any issues you may be encountering on the drug to get an informed decision on what to do next. Timing is also crucial when it comes to PEP. If the course of drugs has not started within 72 hours of potential infection, the drug will no longer be effective.

Why I took PEP

My reasoning for using this often misunderstood drug was down to one thing: paranoia. The partner I had engaged in potentially risky sexual activity with was someone I know to be practising safe sex, and although we weren’t in a relationship we were very open with one another about our fears of HIV risks in the gay community and HIV tests we had previously taken. Nonetheless, I couldn’t shake the feeling of ‘what if?’ after this particular sexual encounter.

After two days of endless overthinking, excessive Googling and sheer panic I decided to bite the bullet and visit my nearest sexual health clinic. On this particular evening the clinic stated upon my entrance that the session was for appointment-only patients – my heart sank as this was my final chance to obtain PEP before the 72 hour window had closed. However, after quietly asking if I could speak to a nurse in private I was humbled to learn how genuinely concerned and helpful the staff at the clinic were. I was ushered into a private room where I explained my situation and within five minutes the nurse had made space for me and I was on the waiting list.

After a short wait I was seen by the doctor who carefully took note of my situation, perfectly explained what PEP was and reassured me that coming to the clinic after potentially being exposed to HIV was the right thing to do. Hearing that my decision to take PEP was the right one was all I wanted to hear from a medical professional at that time. The doctor agreed with my sentiment that if you’re asking yourself ‘what if?’ then you should absolutely take no risks when it comes to HIV, because, ultimately, the only sexual health status you can be 100% sure of is your own. After taking a few blood samples and a quick HIV test, which is something I had done many times over the past few years, I was given my PEP medication.

The instructions were to take one tablet in the morning and two at night, taken exactly 12 hours apart at the same time every day. I was however only given a three day supply of the drug. The doctor informed me that this is normal practice and it’s up to the patient to pick up the remainder of their 28 day supply from their pharmacy. It is absolutely imperative that users of PEP plan ahead to make sure their supply of pills does not run out before retrieving the full medication.

The future

My experience with PEP, which I am currently still using until my 28 days are up, has been both fearful and insightful. In the short amount of time between considering starting a course of the drug and actually taking it I learned more about HIV and the treatments available than ever before. I also came to appreciate the services we have available in this country – if I wasn’t lucky enough to live in such a privileged part of the world who knows how I would be forced to handle a situation like this. Life after PEP will most likely enhance my sexual health paranoia, however I believe that being overly careful is always better than being slack when it comes to an issue such as this. Although I’m confident my treatment will be successful, I am currently still in my PEP bubble which involves a daily routine of taking pills with an alarm reminder at either end of my days. In the end, whether I actually needed the drug or not in the first place, it was most definitely worth it.

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Multiple sclerosis patient walks after taking HIV drugs


A woman with multiple sclerosis (MS) says her symptoms improved so dramatically she was able to walk again after being prescribed HIV drugs.  Shana Pezaro, 36, from Hove, East Sussex, was given antiretroviral drugs after fearing she may have contracted HIV.  Within days, Miss Pezaro noticed an easing of her MS symptoms.

Story via

When a doctor saw her walking up stairs after years of using a wheelchair he set up a clinical trial.

Multiple sclerosis is an incurable condition that can lead to sight loss, pain, fatigue and disability. It affects around 100,000 people in the UK.  In MS the coating around the nerve fibres is damaged causing a range of symptoms.  Once diagnosed there is no cure, but treatments can help manage the condition.

Physical symptoms of MS might commonly include vision problems, balance problems and dizziness, fatigue, bladder problems and stiffness and/or spasms.  MS can affect memory and thinking and also can have an impact on emotions.

Miss Pezaro was a dancer and piano teacher before being diagnosed with MS at the age of 28. The condition affected her hands and feet and she used a wheelchair.

About a year ago, Miss Pezaro thought she may have been exposed to HIV and her doctor prescribed emergency antiretroviral drugs.

“Three days after I took the drugs I walked up a flight of stairs,” she said.

“That was an unbelievable, massive change.”

Prof Julian Gold from the Prince of Wales Hospital in Sydney, saw a video of Miss Pezaro climbing the stairs and a clinical trial was set up to look at the impact of single or combination antiretroviral drugs on MS patients.

An earlier study led by Dr Gold conducted with Queen Mary University, London and the University of Oxford showed an association between HIV and MS.

They reported antiretroviral treatment may suppress other viruses such as those which may cause MS.

Dr Gold said: “The next stage of the investigation is to use a very similar combination [of HIV drugs] that Shana took. I think that might be quite optimistic.”

A spokeswoman for the MS Society said: “Our growing understanding tells us that viruses have a role to play in multiple sclerosis and it will be interesting to see the trial results – positive findings mean another step on the road to beating MS.”

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Too Much Too Young: The British 16 – 24 Year Olds Living With HIV

The number of people living with HIV in the UK is at an all-time high: the figure reached an estimated 86,500 people in 2009, according to the Terrence Higgins Trust. The Health Protection Agency’s data show that new diagnoses of HIV run at around 7,000 per year (it peaked at 7,837 in 2005, and had been reducing year on year until 2010).

No matter how much you may know about HIV, getting tested can be a nerve-wracking process. Blogger and journalist Jack Cullen, 23, had a recent scare when a first test came back as ambiguous. Although he tests regularly he’d had a split condom during sex with a man who was HIV positive.

Jack explains what happened: ‘After that night I knew could have done PEP; but I didn’t agree with the idea of making my body seriously ill, and it was a really important time for me at work. If I’d known I’d definitely gotten HIV off Leo then I would have done PEP, but the truth was I was top, it was a brief split of a condom, and his medication has successfully lowered his HIV count down to “undetectable”.

I was checking my texts when one came through from the clinic. I felt my face lose its colour.

‘I was on the Tube checking my text messages when one came through from the clinic: “Your results were equivocal. Return to 56 Dean St for a second test”. I felt my face lose its colour, I felt like a fool for not doing PEP, and I suddenly felt contaminated and dirty. I didn’t know who to phone because I’d read online that with HIV it’s important to control who knows. That Friday I met a really cute boy in a club and we kissed; he wanted to come back to my house but I couldn’t. I couldn’t f*** him in the knowledge that I might be carrying HIV, but I couldn’t tell him either.’

The test eventually came back negative – but Jack saw it as an important wake-up call. ‘Someone as lightheaded and carefree as me needed that wave of fear as a learning curve’.

One in Ten

(credit: Aldenchadwick, via flickr)

Around 10 per cent of new diagnoses each year are of people aged between 16 and 24. Stephen, a 23-year-old in east London, never thought that he would be one of them. ‘It was completely unexpected,’ he explains. ‘I’d just come back from Thailand where I’d been traveling for about four months. And I came back and I just wanted to have everything checked.

‘Over there, you kind of felt like you were the only one that was young. It seemed like it would never happen to people your age, which is a really naïve way to think about it. But actually, it was quite hard for me to think that there were other people my age that were going through it.’

Andy was just 17 when he went for his test – the same week he’d started a new job working in sexual health. ‘They retested me about four times because they were really unsure, because they were convinced that I was too young.’ He explains that he had been sexually active from age 12, and had known about HIV since he was 14. ‘It wasn’t unknown to me. I knew there was a possibility’.

From this very young age Andy had taken a lot of risks. ‘I’d go out, I’d party, I’d drink. I don’t do any drugs anymore, but I did when I was younger. I would put myself in situations that weren’t – now I look back ‑ at all safe or at all sensible. And I would absolutely die if I had it happen to my young people. So I knew I’d put myself in situations. Many times I wouldn’t know who was lying next to me or where I was, what part of London I was in, because I would just go out and get absolutely trashed.’

I went in and they were like, “Yeah, you haven’t got Chlamydia. You’ve got something else.”

He had started getting tested on a routine basis from age 14 so on this particular occasion he wasn’t concerned about whether it would come back positive or negative. ‘I’d had Chlamydia before, a couple of times. And I just felt that anything that came my way, I’d deal with it. That’s who I am; I just deal with it as it happens. When they called me in saying, “You’ve come back as positive for Chlamydia,” I made a joke of it: “Oh, again?” So I went in and they were like, “Yeah, you haven’t got Chlamydia. You’ve got something else.” I was like, “OK, what is it?” They told me and I just sat there and said, “What next?”’

Jason, from Brighton, was 19 when he got his diagnosis, ‘When I really found out, it was the only time they’d offered me tea, because it had taken so long. I’d been there for a good hour and a bit, and they were taking a long time to see me. And I remember thinking that my frequent flyer miles had paid off, and they’d finally started making me tea.’ He says he has little recollection of exactly what happened next, describing it all as a bit of a blur. ‘After I was told, I’d asked to have some time alone, because I decided I needed to call all the people I’d had sex with. So I was calling these people, and it was absolutely awful’.

Discrimination in the workplace

(credit: philliecasablanca, via Flickr)

Developments in treatment of HIV mean most people living with HIV continue to work. The Disability Discrimination Acts provide protection for people with HIV, but that doesn’t always make telling colleagues very easy. At the small sexual health charity he worked for, Andy had a good relationship with his boss. ‘I went after work that day, on the Friday when I was first given the first result,’ he recalls. ‘I got to work, went to see my boss. Everyone knew something was wrong. I had makeup running down my face. I’d been crying on the train or something like that. I don’t even remember. She knew me really well, so we talked about my situation and all these things. It was the first time I was open with someone. It just went from there. She supported me for the space of six months to a year, making sure I was going to appointments.’

But when he left the organization to work in sexual health for the NHS in a London Borough the reaction was quite different. ‘For the sexual health department, they had a lot of problems with my status,’ he explains. ‘They didn’t like the fact that I was open about it. I’m not open about it with clients, generally. But I was open; especially in the sexual health department, you expect it to be OK. But it wasn’t. There was discrimination there.

‘Well, if I can’t be open about it here, how am I supposed to support clients about being open to their friends, family and colleagues? This was just my first week, four days in, I was already being told, “No. Don’t be yourself. Don’t do this. Don’t be open.” I’m not going to change the way I am because I’m earning a wage.’

For Stephen, throwing himself in to work was a way of dealing with the diagnosis. ‘I went out and got a job very quickly at first, and I didn’t tell them about it. In the end, I actually ended up working in a department where my manager was quite openly HIV positive. Even knowing that, I still didn’t share it with my work. I’d go to my hospital appointments on my days off. I didn’t really want to tell them. I didn’t think that there was any need for me to tell them.’

Coming out all over again

Telling family is different, and for a gay man it can be as just as hard as coming out as gay or bisexual. Although his mother and grandmother were supportive, Stephen found the conversation with his brother really difficult. ‘I think the reason I told my twin brother was because I felt it was a huge part of my life, but I felt really guilty about not sharing with him. And it’s the same kind of feeling guilty when I came out to him. For him, it was the same feeling of anger. But you’re hiding a big part of your life, and I didn’t want to do that. So that’s why I chose to tell my family and my friends, really, because I didn’t want to go back to that stage when I was 14 and hiding things.’

I’ve had to be a lot more sensible and realistic about how I behave. It takes me a lot longer to build a relationship with people.

Not everybody is comfortable telling their family. Jason never has. ‘I couldn’t really work it into any conversation that I would have with my parents. “Pass the salt; by the way…” I’m perfectly comfortable with not telling them now. It just seems to me it would overly worry them more than it needs to.’ Although he recognizes the similarity to coming out, he points out some important differences: ‘It’s like not something that you do once and kind of everyone accepts, it’s something that you do again and again and again. When you find new partners, it can be really difficult sometimes’.

Andy is in a long-term relationship and his partner is negative. ‘When you’re in a relationship, you decide that you’re not going to use protection anymore, you’ll both get tested, get your all clear and stop using them,’ he says. ‘We didn’t have that. We couldn’t ever do that.’

His partner is tested and monitored regularly, but Andy is always in fear of bad news. ‘It is really stressful around that time, waiting for his results; because I think if he caught it, it would just destroy both of us.’

It took Stephen six months after finding out before he felt able to think about dating again. He says that his approach to dating now is different, and that it isn’t necessarily a bad thing. ‘I don’t sleep with people unless I tell them, and I won’t tell them when I first meet them. The way I was before, if I was drunk I would have happily gone home with someone. And I don’t do any of that anymore, so that’s completely changed. I wouldn’t say, necessarily, it’s changed for the worse; I’ve just had to be a lot more sensible and realistic about how I behave. It takes me a lot longer to build a relationship with people.’

Just taking a pill?

(Credit: emagineart, via Flickr)

Jason and Stephen haven’t needed to take medication yet, and for Jason the fact this is still the case five years after diagnosis is definitely a relief. For Andy, starting medication was the most difficult part of being HIV positive. ‘Compared to medication, diagnosis is nothing,’ he says. ‘I knew it was going to happen. But what it did to me, I actually was signed off work for a month and a half. I was unsafe to be on my own. I was hallucinating. I couldn’t sleep. I couldn’t eat. I found it very hard to drink water, even. And I was this crazy person.’

Andy has a strong message for those who think that treating HIV is just about taking some pills. ‘You can just take a pill, but it restricts you from doing a lot of things in life. It restricts you from certain work, certain careers you might want. It restricts you from going to certain countries. It does change your life. It’s a silly little thing to think about that you can’t just stay the night with somebody. If you haven’t got that supply on you, you can’t just stay over at a friend’s house. You’ve got to go home and take one within a certain window period. If you don’t take them, your virus can start to build up a resistance to them.’

All three of our interviewees agree that the most important thing is to be tested regularly and know your status. For Jason it means that he can be in control. ‘I’m so glad I know now that I have it. The idea that I might have passed it on and not known about it is truly awful to me. So the fact that I now know gives me a further peace of mind that I can control my fate; I can prevent it going on now that I know about it.’ And Stephen cautions not to expect any warning: ‘I had no reason to go [to the clinic]. I’d never had an STI. It’s not like you have to have all the other ones before you get this one. HIV is my first ever sexually transmitted disease.’

Jack Cullen considered what he’d have done if the second test result had been different that day: ‘If that morning was different and I did find out I was positive then I wouldn’t beat myself up about it. I’d be determined to carry on living happily and healthily, because HIV isn’t a death sentence. I wish there wasn’t such a stigma or social taboo too; people like my friend Leo, who are living with HIV, deserve our support and respect, anyway – he’s one of the fittest and funniest guys I know.’

If you have been affected by any of the issues in this article, we can provide support.  We offer a completely free and confidential rapid HIV test and you’ll get the results within 60 seconds from a simple finger prick test.  We use the Insti HIV test produced by BioLytical laboratories.  The test is 99.96% accurate from 90 days post contact for detecting HIV 1 and 2 antibodies.  Appointments are not always necessary, if you would like a test, please contact us on 0116 2559995

Other support organisations exist including the Terrence Higgins Trust, they can be contacted on 0808 802 1221, and GMFA. The NHS Choices website also contains useful information on sexual health clinics and getting tested.

Some names in this article have been changed at interviewees’ request.

This artical was written by Ade Bradle at sosogay.org on 8th July 2011.  Link to original article.

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