Tag Archives: hiv vaccine research

Something to #Celebrate: Good news in #HIV #Vaccine Research!

Scientists may have discovered a way to spur the human body to create antibodies capable of blocking the HIV virus. Researchers at institutions around the United States said in five studies published Thursday in the journals Cell, Immunity and Science that they had made an important early step toward developing a vaccine for the disease.

“It’s early work, but we’re trying to rewrite some rules of vaccine development to overcome the extraordinary challenges of HIV,” William Schief, director of vaccine design for the Neutralizing Antibody Center at the Scripps Research Institute’s International AIDs Vaccine Initiative, said. “In a collaborative effort we have reached critical milestones, including the first proof ever that immunization with designer proteins can produce broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV. The new results strongly support further developing these approaches toward testing in clinical studies.”

There are still some major challenges before clinical studies on humans can begin. To put it simply, HIV is difficult to combat because it attacks the very immune cells sent out to fight it. When the body is successful in fighting it (usually with the help of drugs) the virus is really good at hiding dormant until the next opportunity to stage a comeback. Traditional vaccines haven’t worked to fight HIV but this new research shows that so-called “broadly neutralizing antibodies” are capable of controlling or preventing infection from a range of HIV strains and researchers think these special antibodies are the key to formulating a vaccine.

But for it to be effective the vaccine would have to be much better than nature. Only about 10 to 20 percent of people infected with HIV develop the antibodies on their own and it can take years for them to develop. This new vaccine would have to coax the human immune system to act differently. The researchers were able to spur this kind of reaction in mice whose immune systems mimicked components of the human immune system.

Vaccines aren’t the only way scientists hope to address the HIV problem around the world. Other approaches — including one that resulted in the only known case of HIV being cured, stem cell transplants — are being looked at.

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Here’s another link on the same story: New vaccination strategies coach immune system to make HIV-neutralizing antibodies

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The quest for a HIV vaccine

Credit: UNAIDS

There is broad scientific consensus that getting to zero new HIV infections will require an HIV vaccine. Modelling shows that even a partially effective HIV vaccine can save many lives and dollars over time.

Although a vaccine to prevent HIV could be the tool to quicken the pace to reach the end of AIDS, the quest for an effective vaccine has until now proved elusive. The very nature and variety of the human immunodeficiency virus has meant that it has resisted most attempts to quell its spread and scientists and vaccinologists the world over are focusing efforts on finding solutions.

Exciting recent developments in HIV vaccine research are instilling hope around finding an effective vaccine. In 2009, results from a trial in Thailand—RV144—showed a 31.2% vaccine efficacy in preventing HIV infections. Although only modestly protective, the results instilled new hope that an HIV vaccine could be found and made available for populations around the world most in need of a vaccine.

The results represented a significant scientific advance, and were the first demonstration that a vaccine can prevent HIV infection in a general adult population. It was a discovery of great importance and has been followed by more encouraging data in the last couple of years.

Data presented in the past year has been presented on the protective immune responses that were stimulated by the Thai vaccine trial.  Trials are now planned to see if an RV144-like regimen will protect against a strain of HIV infection found in South Africa and against HIV acquisition by people at higher risk of exposure, specifically men who have sex with men.

UNAIDS and the US Centers for Disease Control worked closely with modelling teams to estimate the impact of the RV144 regimen in different countries and with different populations and found that 10% of infections could be prevented if the same 31% efficacy was found in people who receive the vaccine. This shows that a modestly effective HIV vaccine could add to the prevention toolbox of partially effective methods, hastening the decline of the HIV epidemic.

These and other advances in HIV vaccine development—including the design of new tools and technologies for vaccine delivery—have boosted optimism in the field about the prospects for the development of a safe and effective AIDS vaccine.

However, early data from the HIV Vaccines and Microbicides Resource Tracking Working Group is showing that a downturn in HIV vaccine funding that began in 2008 continued through 2011. The quest for effective HIV vaccines is a long-term investment in both the product (vaccines) and in the people who will develop, produce, market and support them. Investments in research and trials are essential and can bring benefits far beyond the AIDS field.

The need for a vaccine to prevent HIV is clear.  There are in excess of 34 million people living with HIV, and every day more than 7000 people are becoming newly infected with the virus. Although a vaccine may not provide the magic bullet to end the AIDS epidemic, it would provide an additional tool to add to the robust package of HIV prevention options which are now available.

UNAIDS will continue to work with multiple partners––scientific communities, national and international AIDS research agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, private foundations, member states, and affected communities––to push the HIV vaccine agenda forward and ensure that the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine continues.

Original Article via UNAids

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