Tag Archives: Hiv Treatment

Two interferon-free regimens have high hepatitis C cure rates for people with HIV

David Wyles and Susanna Naggie presenting at CROI 2015. Photo by Liz Highleyman, hivandhepatitis.com.

David Wyles and Susanna Naggie presenting at CROI 2015. Photo by Liz Highleyman, hivandhepatitis.com.

Story via NAM (@aidsmap)

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NAM is an award-winning, community-based organisation, which works from the UK. They deliver reliable and accurate HIV information across the world to HIV-positive people and to the professionals who treat, support and care for them.

A pair of two-drug, 12-week regimens containing neither interferon nor ribavirin cured hepatitis C for more than 95% of people with HIV and hepatitis C co-infection, according to two studies presented to CROI this week.

The first regimen was sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir (Harvoni coformulation), produced by Gilead. The second was sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) plus daclatasvir (Daklinza), with the latter drug produced by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Ledipasvir and daclatasvir are both NS5A inhibitors.

In both studies, the response rates in people with HIV and hepatitis C co-infection were as high as those for people with hepatitis C mono-infection in other trials. This supports recent hepatitis C treatment guidelines recommending that HIV-positive and HIV-negative people should be treated in the same way for hepatitis C.

For sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir (Harvoni), 335 people with co-infection took part in the open-label, non-randomised study. The trial had broad inclusion criteria and included more difficult-to-treat groups such as prior non-responders and people with liver cirrhosis than many other studies. Almost all had genotype 1, more than half were treatment-experienced and three-quarters had unfavourable IL28B gene variants. All were taking HIV treatment and most had an undetectable viral load.

Participants took a once-daily tablet for twelve weeks, with an additional twelve weeks follow-up to assess sustained virological response (SVR12), or continued undetectable hepatitis C. The overall SVR12 rate was 96%, similar to that in people with mono-infection. Having taken treatment before, having liver cirrhosis or NS5A resistance variants made little difference to the cure rate.

However, SVR12 rates were slightly lower in participants who were black. This had not been observed in mono-infection studies. One possible explanation, which will be explored, is an influence of genetics on drug response when both ledipasvir and antiretrovirals are used.

For sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) plus daclatasvir (Daklinza), 151 previously untreated individuals with co-infection were randomised to either eight or twelve weeks of the regimen, while 52 treatment-experienced individuals all took it for twelve weeks. Almost all participants were taking HIV treatment and had an undetectable viral load.

While two-thirds had hepatitis C genotype 1a, people with genotypes 2 to 6 were included – an advantage of daclatasvir is that it is active against multiple genotypes whereas ledipasvir is primarily active against genotype 1.

Participants randomised to take the once-daily tablets for eight weeks had poorer results (SVR12 76%), but the twelve-week course worked well – an SVR12 of 96% in people who had never taken treatment before and 98% in treatment-experienced individuals. Rates were similar across genotypes.

Both regimens studied were generally safe and well-tolerated.

Related links
Read this news story in full on aidsmap.com
View a webcast of Susanna Naggie presenting
View a webcast of David Wyles presenting

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The NHS urgently needs to make PrEP available

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Two European studies of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PROUD1 and IPERGAY2, reported early results in October 2014. Both studies showed that PrEP was so effective at preventing HIV transmission that everyone in these studies has now been offered PrEP. The comparison arms, which respectively offered delayed PrEP or a placebo, have been closed.

In light of this news, together with data on continued high rates of new infections3, the NHS urgently needs to make PrEP available.

Although an NHS England process to evaluate PrEP is underway, any decision to provide PrEP will probably not be implemented until early 2017, which is too long to wait. We are calling for earlier access to PrEP. The NHS must speed up its evaluation process and make PrEP available as soon as possible. Furthermore, we call for interim arrangements to be agreed now for provision of PrEP to those at the highest risk of acquiring HIV.

What is PrEP?

PrEP stands for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. It involves a person who doesn’t have HIV taking pills regularly to reduce their risk of HIV infection. Several studies show that PrEP works.

PrEP is currently only available in the UK to people enrolled in the PROUD study,4 but has been available in the US since 2012.

Why do we need PrEP?

There are now over 100,000 people living with HIV in the UK. 5 We need to improve HIV prevention.

Tens of thousands of HIV transmissions have been prevented by condom use.6  However many people do not use condoms all of the time and each year there are thousands of new infections. PrEP has the potential to prevent new infections among some of those at greatest risk of acquiring HIV.

Condom use will remain a core strategy in HIV prevention. PrEP gives people who already find it difficult to consistently use condoms an additional way to protect their health.

Due to the high rate of HIV infections, there is a particular need for the NHS to make PrEP available to gay men. However it should be available to all people who are at high risk of acquiring HIV.

How effective is PrEP?

Research suggests that PrEP is as effective as condoms in preventing HIV transmission, as long as the pills are taken regularly, as directed. Evidence from a large international study suggests that gay men who maintained at least four doses a week had 96% fewer infections.7 8 Preliminary results from separate studies of PrEP in the UK9 and France10 both show that PrEP substantially reduces infections among gay men. Full results are expected early in 2015. PrEP has also proven effective for heterosexual couples in which one partner is HIV positive and not on HIV treatment.11

PrEP does not prevent other sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy. It allows someone to protect their own health, irrespective of whether their partner uses a condom. Because it is taken several hours before sex, it does not rely on decision-making at the time of sex.

Why take HIV treatment to avoid taking HIV treatment?

People living with HIV need to take lifelong treatment. PrEP consists of fewer drugs and people only need to take it during periods when they are at risk of HIV. Many people find that their sexual behaviour changes over time, for example when they begin or end a relationship.

Does PrEP have side-effects?

Any medicine can have side-effects, so taking PrEP is a serious decision. The drugs in PrEP have been used as part of HIV treatment for many years. This has shown that they have a low risk of serious side-effects. Most people taking PrEP don’t report side-effects. Some people have stomach problems, headaches and tiredness during the first month but these usually go away. People taking PrEP have regular check-ups at a clinic.

Does PrEP mean people take more risks?

The full results of the PROUD study will help us understand the impact of PrEP on condom use among gay men in the UK. But other studies of PrEP have consistently reported that being on PrEP did not result in people adopting riskier behaviours. 12 13  14 Instead it gives people who already find it difficult to consistently use condoms a way to protect their health.

                                                        

References

  1. http://www.proud.mrc.ac.uk/PDF/PROUD%20Statement%20161014.pdf
  2. http://www.aidsmap.com/SecondEuropeanPrEPstudyclosesplaceboarmearlyduetohigheffectiveness/page/2917367/
  3. Public Health England. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2014 Report. London: Public Health England. November 2014.
  4. For more information, http://www.proud.mrc.ac.uk
  5. Public Health England. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2014 London: Public Health England. November 2014.
  6. Phillips AN et al. Increased HIV Incidence in Men Who Have Sex with Men Despite High Levels of ARTInduced Viral Suppression: Analysis of an Extensively Documented Epidemic. PLoS ONE 8(2): e55312. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055312.
  7. Grant RM et al. Preexposure Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Who Have Sex with Men. New England Journal of Medicine 363:2587-2599, 2010.
  8. Anderson PL et al. Emtricitabinetenofovir concentrations and preexposure prophylaxis efficacy in men who have sex with men. Science Translational Medicine 4: 151ra125, 2012.
  9. http://www.proud.mrc.ac.uk/PDF/PROUD%20Statement%20161014.pdf
  10. http://www.aidsmap.com/SecondEuropeanPrEPstudyclosesplaceboarmearlyduetohigheffectiveness/page/2917367/
  11. Baeten JM et al. Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Heterosexual Men and Women. New England Journal of Medicine 367: 399-410, 2012.
  12. Marcus JL et al. No Evidence of Sexual Risk Compensation in the iPrEx Trial of Daily Oral HIV Preexposure PLoS ONE 8: e81997, 2013.
  13. Mugwanya KK et al. Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 13: 1021–28, 2013. 14 Grant RM et al. Uptake of preexposure prophylaxis, sexual practices, and HIV incidence in men and transgender women who have sex with men: a cohort study. Lancet Infectious Diseases 14: 820-829, 2014.

Via NAM

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HIV in the UK: 76% diagnosed, 90% on treatment, 90% undetectable

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UK achieves two out of three UNAIDS targets, but undiagnosed infection remains a major problem

The UK’s annual epidemiological report, released yesterday, shows that the country already provides HIV treatment to 90% of people attending clinical services and that 90% of those on treatment have an undetectable viral load. But the country has a long way to go in ensuring that people with HIV are aware of their HIV status – only 76% of people living with HIV have been diagnosed. The problem is particularly acute in black African communities, as only 62% of African heterosexual men and 69% of African heterosexual women living with HIV have been diagnosed.

The figures can be compared to the ambitious targets announced by UNAIDS (the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS) earlier in the year: for 90% of all people living with HIV to know their status, 90% of those to be on treatment and 90% of those to have an undetectable viral load. If these figures could be achieved by 2020, the global AIDS epidemic would be over by 2030, UNAIDS said.

The UK appears to have achieved two out of three of the targets, but has a significant problem due to the high rates of undiagnosed infection. Overall, 61% of all people living with HIV in the UK have an undetectable viral load. This contrasts with the 73% that would be achieved if all three of UNAIDS’ 90/90/90 targets were accomplished.

New diagnoses, overall prevalence

Public Health England reports that 6000 people were newly diagnosed with HIV in the United Kingdom in 2013. The overall figure is lower than that seen a decade ago, due to fewer diagnoses among heterosexual men and women born in high-prevalence African countries. Among gay men, the number of diagnoses is as high as ever, with 3250 cases reported in 2013. An estimated 30% of the gay men diagnosed in 2013 were recently infected with HIV (within six months of their diagnosis).

There are now almost 110,000 people living with HIV in the country, including 26,000 who don’t know they have it. This can be broken down into risk groups:

  • Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (43,500 people; prevalence of 5.9%).
  • Black African heterosexual women (25,100 people; prevalence of 7.1%).
  • Black African heterosexual men (13,600 people; prevalence of 4.1%).
  • Heterosexual women of other ethnicities (10,300 people; prevalence of 0.06%).
  • Heterosexual men of other ethnicities (10,200 people; prevalence of 0.06%).
  • People who inject drugs (2400 people; prevalence of 0.7%).

High rates of undiagnosed infection, especially in black African communities

Overall, 24% of people living with HIV are unaware that they have it. The rates of undiagnosed infection are lowest among gay men (16%) and people who inject drugs (10%).

In relation to black African people, it’s worth noting that in previous epidemiological reports the description of a person as ‘black African’ primarily depended on whether they were born in an African country. In contrast, the new report focuses on a person’s ethnicity, so that someone born in the UK to Nigerian parents is considered in the ‘African’ category. As a result of this and other methodological changes, some of the figures for undiagnosed infection are not directly comparable to previous years’ – and paint a more worrying picture.

In 2013, 31% of black African heterosexual women and 38% of black African heterosexual men who had HIV were unaware of their infection. Rates of undiagnosed infection were somewhat lower among heterosexual people of other ethnicities: 27% in men and 23% in women.

The report also shows that rates of undiagnosed infection are far worse outside London, compared to the capital. Outside London, 41% and 49% of African men and women were undiagnosed. In London, 10% and 13% were undiagnosed. There is some fuzziness to these estimates: the true values could be up to 10% higher or lower than the figures given here. But a clear geographic difference would still be observed. This could reflect stronger community networks and more accessible health services, including targeted prevention, in the capital.

Another way to consider undiagnosed infection is to look at rates of late diagnosis – people diagnosed with a CD4 cell count below 350 cells/mm3. Rates of late diagnosis were highest among heterosexual men (62%) and heterosexual women (51%), with black Africans especially likely to be diagnosed late. The lowest rate of late diagnosis was seen in gay men (31%). Across all groups, older people and non-Londoners were more likely to be diagnosed late.

But progress has been made over the past decade – the overall rate of late diagnosis has gone down from 57 to 42%.

A higher uptake of HIV testing, including more frequent testing, is needed to improve the figures on undiagnosed infection and late diagnosis. The report shows that, at sexual health clinics, 86% of gay male patients take an HIV test, but only 77% of heterosexual men and 67% of heterosexual women do so. Whereas guidelines recommend that all people attending sexual health clinics are offered an HIV test, only one-in-seven clinics test at least 80% of their heterosexual patients. Public Health England recommends that clinics review their policies and training protocols.

But while PHE has been able to collect data on HIV testing in sexual health clinics, none are available for testing in GP surgeries, in other medical settings, or in community settings. A significant improvement in the proportion of people living with HIV who are diagnosed is thought unlikely to occur without improved provision of testing in non-specialist settings, as recommended in guidelines. The report notes that less than one in five of the black-African population attended a sexual health clinic in the previous five years.

“Reductions in undiagnosed infection can be achieved through increasing testing coverage in STI clinics, the introduction and consolidation of HIV testing in a variety of different medical services, in addition to further development of community testing, including self-sampling,” PHE comment.

Quality of care for people living with HIV

Considering the next stages of the ‘treatment cascade’ and the National Health Service’s performance in relation to UNAIDS’ targets, the report shows that 90% of people were linked to care within a month of their diagnosis (98% within three months). Moreover, 95% of those who received care in 2012 were retained in care in 2013. Results did not vary according to age, gender, ethnicity, sexuality or geographical area.

Further, 90% of people in care received antiretroviral therapy (up from 69% in 2004). This includes 92% of those with a CD4 cell count below 350 cells/mm3. Of all people taking treatment, 90% had an undetectable viral load, below 200 cells/ml.

Generally there was equality in treatment outcomes, although younger people were less likely to be taking therapy. Moreover, people in both the youngest (15-24 years) and the oldest (over 50) age groups were less likely to have an undetectable viral load.

Guidelines recommend that clinicians discuss treatment as prevention with patients, and give them the option to start treatment early for this reason. Probably as a result, average CD4 cell counts when starting treatment have risen in recent years. In 2013, 25% began treatment with a CD4 cell count between 350 and 500 cells/mm3, and a further 26% did so above 500 cells/mm3.

Article via NAM

For your full copy of the report, click here

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When HIV is the cure.

cure-for-all-diseases

A man who was diagnosed with an extremely aggressive form of cancer two years ago is now amazingly in remission thanks to a revolutionary treatment that involved receiving an infusion of the HIV virus.

Marshall Jensen of Utah, was one of 30 leukemia patients to undergo a trial treatment at Penn Medicine recently, in which white blood cells are implanted with a harmless form of HIV programmed to target and kill cancer.

Marshall, his wife Amanda and their young son Kezman, had spent two years travelling around the States hoping to find a cure which was diagnosed a year after the couple got married.

They eventually met Dr Carl June at Penn Medicine in Pennsylvania, who has spent 20 years working on a breakthrough experimental treatment using HIV.  Dr June enrolled Marshall onto the trial and the results have been nothing short of miraculous.

As well as Marshall’s fantastic news, of the 30 leukaemia patients who received the treatment – comprised of five adults and 25 children – 23 are still alive and 19 are in remission.

Marshall told local TV news: “We didn’t know how we were going to get out there, what we were going to do, but it worked”

Last Thursday, a healthier Jensen returned to his home town to a surprise homecoming celebration.  The connection between leukemia and HIV was first discovered in 2006, when an HIV-positive man named Timothy Wood was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia.

After receiving a bone marrow transplant from a donor with a rare genetic mutation, Timothy’s cancer went into remission and the HIV disappeared from his system making him the first man to ever be fully cured of the virus.

Since then, Dr June and his team have been working on developing a HIV-based treatment for leukaemia and, this October, published a study showing the therapy’s success on 30 cancer patients.

The patients who received the treatment had billions of T-cells extracted from their body, which were taken to a lab and implanted with deactivated HIV.

The ‘serial killer’ cells are then put back into the body to fight and kill cancer, and remain dormant until the cancer reappears.  While the idea of receiving a dose of HIV may seem scary to some, Dr June says there’s nothing to fear about the stripped-down virus used in the treatment.

He explained: “It’s a disabled virus, but it retains the one essential feature of HIV, which is the ability to insert new genes into cells.”

Seven-year-old Emma Whitehead was the first child to receive the treatment in 2012, and has been cancer-free for two years now.  Dr June and his team are now looking at using the HIV treatment to attack other forms of cancers, and will be starting trials this summer for pancreatic cancer patients.

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MH17: HIV community mourns loss of pioneer researcher Joep Lange

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The international AIDS community is mourning the deaths of researchers whose plane was shot down over Ukraine and who were travelling to Melbourne for a global AIDS conference.

The former International AIDS Society president Joep Lange and his partner and ArtAids board member Jacqueline van Tongeren have been confirmed as having been on the flight, while there are reports of others including a World Health Organization spokesman, Glenn Thomas.

298 people – 283 passengers including three infants and 15 crew – were killed on the Malaysia Airlines flight 17.

Global leaders mourned

David Cooper, director of the Kirby Institute at UNSW Australia, was a friend of Joep Lange. He received a call at 3am telling him that Lange and his partner were on the flight.

Professor Cooper said his colleague of 30 years had “an absolute commitment to HIV treatment and care in Asia and Africa”.

“Joep was absolutely committed to the development of affordable HIV treatments, particularly combination therapies, for use in resource-poor countries,” Professor Cooper said.

Professor Lange was a professor of medicine and head of the Department of Global Health at the Academic Medical Centre at the University of Amsterdam. He served as president of the International AIDS Society from 2002 to 2004.

In his 30 years of researching HIV, he led pivotal trials of antiretroviral therapy and published more than 350 papers in peer-reviewed journals.

“Another outstanding area of [Lange’s] contribution has been his pioneering role in exploring affordable and simple antiretroviral drug regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor settings,” Professor Cooper said.

“Both of these have been part of his dedication to increasing access to effective HIV treatment.  The joy in collaborating with Joep was that he would always bring a fresh view, a unique take on things, and he never accepted that something was impossible to achieve.”

More AIDS2014 delegates feared lost

Australia’s Foreign Minister Julie Bishop has told reporters this morning: “A number of people who were travelling to Malaysia for an international AIDS conference were also on board”.

The Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur was due to connect with a flight to Perth, before people travelled onto Melbourne, Reuters and others have reported.

UNAIDS director Michael Sidibe, who is already in Melbourne for the week-long 20th International Aids Conference, tweeted: “Many passengers were enroute to #AIDS2014 here in #Melbourne.”

The conference organisers, the International AIDS Society, released a statement expressing “sincere sadness” at the news of the M17 disaster:

At this incredibly sad and sensitive time the IAS stands with our international family and sends condolences to the loved ones of those who have been lost to this tragedy.

Story via The Conversation

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Prominent HIV researcher Joep Lange was among the victims of flight MH17

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Joep Lange, a prominent HIV researcher and former president of the International AIDS Society, was one of the victims of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17.

A professor of medicine and head of the department of global health at the University of Amsterdam, Lange had been involved in HIV treatment and research since 1983, just as the virus was emerging as a global health threat.

He was one of the key researchers behind several pivotal antiretroviral therapy trials, including projects involving the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the virus, according to the Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development.

Lange was on his way to AIDS 2014, a global conference that will take place in Melbourne, Australia from July 20 to 25, at the time of death.

He was traveling with his wife, who has also died in the crash.

“Joep was a visionary amongst HIV researchers,” American HIV researcher Dr. Rick Elion told Vox. “He was acutely aware of the multiple dimensions of HIV spanning science to society and had a heart of gold. This is a huge loss for the field.”

“Joep was absolutely committed to the development of affordable HIV treatments, particularly combination therapies, for use in resource-poor countries,” David Cooper, a friend and fellow researcher told the Australian academic news website The Conversation.

“Another outstanding area of [Lange’s] contribution has been his pioneering role in exploring affordable and simple antiretroviral drug regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor settings,” Cooper said.

Other researchers and activists have died en route to the AIDS conference, though the death toll has not yet been confirmed.

Australian newspapers are reporting that as many as 108 conference participants may have been on the plane.

The International AIDS Society issued a statement on the losses:

The IAS today expresses its sincere sadness at receiving news that a number of colleagues and friends en route to attend the 20th International AIDS Conference taking place in Melbourne, Australia, were on board the Malaysian Airlines MH17 flight that has crashed over Ukraine earlier today.

At this incredibly sad and sensitive time the IAS stands with our international family and sends condolences to the loved ones of those who have been lost to this tragedy.

We also at LASS, recognise this incredible loss of some some of the worlds finest scientific HIV activists and send our sympathies and heartfelt sorrow to the families of those who died yesterday on flight MH17.

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Stem cells edited to produce an HIV-resistant immune system

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A team of haematologists has engineered a particular white blood cell to be HIV resistant after hacking the genome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

The technique has been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and was devised by Yuet Wai Kan of the University of California, former President of the American Society of Haematology, and his peers.

The white blood cell the team had ideally wanted to engineer was CD+4 T, a cell that is responsible for sending signals to other cells in the immune system, and one that is heavily targeted by the HIV virus. When testing for the progress of HIV in a patient, doctors will take a CD4 cell count in a cubic millimetre of blood, with between 500 and 1,500 cells/mm3 being within the normal range. If it drops below around 250, it means HIV has taken hold — the virus ravages these cells and uses them as an entry point.

HIV gains entry by attaching itself to a receptor protein on the CD+4 T cell surface known as CCR5. If this protein could be altered, it could potentially stop HIV entering the immune system, however. A very small number of the population have this alteration naturally and are partially resistant to HIV as a result — they have two copies of a mutation that prevents HIV from hooking on to CCR5 and thus the T cell.

In the past, researchers attempted to replicate the resistance by simply transplanting stem cells from those with the mutation to an individual suffering from HIV. The rarity of this working has been demonstrated by the fact that just one individual, Timothy Ray Brown (AKA the Berlin patient), has been publicly linked to the treatment and known to be HIV free today. The Californian team hoped to go right to the core of the problem instead, and artificially replicate the protective CCR5 mutation.

Kan has been working for years on a precise process for cutting and sewing back together genetic information. His focus throughout much of his career has been sickle cell anaemia, and in recent years this has translated to researching mutations and how these can be removed at the iPSC stage, as they are differentiated into hematopoietic cells. He writes on his university web page: “The future goal to treatment is to take skin cells from patients, differentiate them into iPS cells, correct the mutations by homologous recombination, and differentiate into the hematopoietic cells and re-infuse them into the patients. Since the cells originate from the patients, there would not be immuno-rejection.” No biggie.

This concept has now effectively been translated to the study of HIV and the CD+4 T cell.

Kan and his team used a system known as CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the genes of the iPSCs. It uses Cas9, a protein derived from bacteria, to introduce a double strand break somewhere at the genome, where part of the virus is then incorporated into the genome to act as a warning signal to other cells. An MIT team has already used the technique to correct a human disease-related mutation in mice.

When Kan and his team used the technique they ended up creating HIV resistant white blood cells, but they were not CD+4 T-cells. They are now speculating that rather than aiming to generate this particular white blood cell with inbuilt resistance, future research instead look at creating HIV resistant stem cells that will become all types of white blood cells in the body.

Of course, with this kind of therapy the risk is different and unexpected mutations could occur. In an ideal world, doctors will not want to be giving constant cell transplants, but generating an entirely new type of HIV resistant cells throughout the body carries its own risks and will need stringent evaluation if it comes at all close to being proven.

Speaking to Wired.co.uk, Louis Picker of the Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute at Oregon Health and Science University seemed cautiously hopeful: “This is an old idea, with an extensive literature, that is being updated in this paper with the use of the new CRISPR technology, which makes it much much easier to modify human genes.

“Given that the so-called Berlin patient was apparently functionally cured by getting a bone marrow transplant from a (rare) CCR5-null mutant donor, the approach would indeed be promising from a scientific standpoint. Keeping in mind that bone marrow transplant is not likely to be an option for treating the vast majority of HIV positive subjects on effective anti-retroviral therapy. CRISPR technology is no question a break-through, but whether this application will have wide impact is difficult to predict at this time.”

The California also used another technique to make the alterations to the genes. This resulted in resistance in CD+4 T-cells, with levels of the virus being reduced. However, further T-cell transplants were shown to be needed to maintain this. This result in itself is quite astounding, but not the cure Kan is working for.

Story via Wired

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